Glossary of Rubber Words and Terminology

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Definitions of Rubber Words and Terminology

AASHTO
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials is a non-government entity which sets standards and guidelines for highway construction and transportation protocols in the United States. Its purpose is to support states in efficently and safely moving people and goods.
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Abrasion Resistance
Withstanding surface loss of a material due to frictional forces.
Accelerated Test
Test method designed to approximate in a short time, deteriorating effect of normal long-term service conditions.
Age Resistance
Ability of a material to resist deterioration caused by aging.
Aging Oven
An air oven for different accelerated test samples.
AMS
SAE Aerospace Material Specifications are utilized worldwide in the design and production of aircraft components and systems. AMS documents are standardized procurement documents designed to speed the process of delivery, reduce cost, and to reduce the number of individual company and government specifications. The use of AMS is voluntary.
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ASTM International
Formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM International is a global standards organization that developes international standards for materials, products, systems, and services. The current Annual Book of ASTM Standards has 15 sections covering subjects ranging from steel, plastic, & rubber to electrical, water, nuclear and more.
Autoclave
A pressure vessel use to process material with pressure and heat. Steam pressure autoclaves are commonly used in the process of rubber vulcanization.
Banbury®
A Banbury mixer is a brand of industrial mixer (trademarked by the Farrel Corporation) and is used for mixing rubber and plastic compounds. It uses two rotating spiral blades to mix the compound material.
Bio-Diesel
Diesel fuel derived from renewable sources of agricultural co-products and byproducts like vegetable oil or animal fats. Bio-diesel can be blended with petrodiesel; B20 is a blend of 20% bio-diesel and 80% pertrodiesel. All legal bio-diesel fuel must meet the ASTM D 6751 standards and be registered with the EPA. Bio-diesel is more environmentally friendly than standard diesel feuls as it is cleaner burning and bio-degrades. Biodiesel is produced domestically which lessens our dependence on foreign oil.
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Bloom
Liquid or solid material that has migrated to the surface of a rubber and generally changes the surface appearance.
Butyl Rubber
Butyl Rubber is a copolymer of isobutylene and a small percentage of isoprene. Butyl rubber is impermeable to air and is used in applications requiring airtight rubber. Butyl rubber is use in many applications such as tire inner tubes, adhesives, fuel additives, caulks, sealants, and more.
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Calender
A calendar machine is a mechanical device that is used in the manufacturing of sheet material. A calendar may be used to make sheet from a ranges of substrates including paper, cloth, and raw rubber. In sheet rubber manufacturing, the rubber compound passes between two or more parallel counter rolling rolls in a controlled environment. The calendar provides the dimensionality to the rubber compound by controlling the thickness gauge and width.
Carbon Black
Carbon Black is a material of partial (incomplete) combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. It is essentially elemental carbon in the form of extremely fine particles having an amorphous molecular structure. Rubber grade carbon blacks are characterized by four basic properties: surface area, particle size, structure and surface activity. These properties of carbon black effect on rubber properties. Carbon black is one of the major fillers used in rubber production as pigments, reinforcements and to meet specific requirements.
Chute Lining
Provides added cushioning to steady material flows and conveyors. Also prevents damage or build up of material along the chute over time.
Cloth–Inserted
Fabric re-enforced sheet rubber enhances dimensional stability and is typically used in applications with high compression loads.
Co–Polymer
A polymer made of two different monomers. For example, SBR is a rubber co-polymer and is made up of the monomers Styrene and Butadiene.
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Compound
Intimate mixture of a polymer(s) with all materials necessary (oil, carbon black, curatives, etc.) for the finished article.
Compression Press
A press (commonly hydraulic press) that molds and laminates material into a desired three-dimensional shape.
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Compression Set
The decrease in thickness of a test specimen 30 minutes after removal from a device in which the specimen has been subjected to compression deformation.
Continuous Vulcanization
The condition where a shaped article is processed through vulcanization reaction without pause. Microwave cure is one example of continuous vulcanization.
Cure
An irreversible process during which a rubber compound through a change in its chemical stucture (cross–linking, for example), becomes less plastic and more resistant to swelling by organic liquids and elastic properties are conferred, improved or extended over a greater range of temperature. Cure and vulcaniztion are interchangeable terms as they share the same definition.
Durometer
Instrument for measuring the indentation hardness of rubber.
Elongation
The percentage of original length to which a rubber compound is stretched. Extension produced by a tensile stress.
Extrusion
The process in which an uncured rubber compound is pushed through a die of a desired cross-sectional shape or profile.
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Fillers
Fillers are utilized to provide or improve such attributes as consistency, durability, and performance in rubber products. Carbon Black is the most common reinforcing filler used in rubber production; non-black rubber fillers include calcium carbonate, kaolin clay, precipitated silica, talc, barite, amorphous silica, and diatomite.
See also Carbon Black.
Flex Life
Number of cycles required to produce a specified state of failure in a specimen that flexed in a prescribed method.
Freight Collect Shipping
Shipping process in which the addressee has a pre-arranged account with a shipping or freight carrier. In this process, the carrier bills the addressee directly.
Gasket
A shaped piece of rubber that seals the junction between two surfaces. Often found in engines, pipes, tanks, valves and a multitude of other devices and applications, rubber gaskets may be molded, extruded, spliced, or die cut from sheet materials.
Hardness
The relative resistance of rubber to indentation. Usually a Shore A2 Hardness tester (Durometer) is used to measure hardness.
Injection Press
An Injection Press machine injects molten rubber into a mold to produce a desired three dimensional shape. Injection Press molding is utilized for high volume runs due to faster cure times compared to Compression and Compression/Transfer molding. WARCO BILTRITE utilizes both types of Injection Presses in our molding operation: Horizontal Injection and Vertical Injection. See also Compression Press.
IMDS
The International Material Data System (IMDS) is a collective, computer-based material data system for OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer) to manage relevant environmental aspects of the different parts in vehicles. More info >
Latex
Latex is the milky sap of a variety of trees of the genus Hevea (or rubber trees). Latex is the base substance from which Natural Rubber products are derived.
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Mooney or Mooney Viscosity
Mooney or Mooney viscosity is the common measurement used to measure the viscosity of elastomers and rubber materials. Named after Melvin Mooney who invented the mooney viscometer. Mooney viscosity is determined by the measured torque on the viscometer's rotating spindle when the specimen is between two heated dies.
Polymer
Many monomer units chemically linked together in repeating structural units. Rubber polymers available at WARCO BILTRITE include: Neoprene, Butyl, EPDM, Nitrile (Buna–N), Natural Rubber, SBR, Silicone, and Fluoroelastomer (including Viton®). Get more information about these rubber polymers >
Polymerization
Process of linking two or more molecules to form a new molecule having different properties.
Resilience
Ratio of energy output to energy input in a rapid full recovery of a deformed specimen.
RoHS
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive 2002/95/EC was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union. This directive restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacturing of various types of electrical and electronic equipment. More info >
Scorch
Premature vulcanization of a rubber compound.
Synthetic Rubber
An elastic substance produced from monomers such as butadiene, styrene and isoprene. Because of superior performance (tread wear, resistance to groove cracking, lower cost) synthetic rubbers have largely replaced natural rubber.
Tear Strength
Maximum force required to tear a specified specimen.
Tensile Strength
The maximum stress expressed on pounds per square inch (mega pascal) of a cured rubber compound to rupture.
Vulcanization
An irreversible process during which a rubber compound through a change in its chemical stucture (cross–linking, for example), becomes less plastic and more resistant to swelling by organic liquids and elastic properties are conferred, improved or extended over a greater range of temperature. Cure and vulcaniztion are interchangeable terms as they share the same definition.